Functional programming using bind

Since the introduction of the STL (Standard Template Library) the use of functors has been a prevalent part of writing C++. Most of the STL algorithms require the use of a functor. For example, the std::transform requires a function object that, given an input of the current value of the current position, it will return a new value what will be used to modify the current value.
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C++11 r-value references

The C++03 standard treats temporary types as r-values (types only meant to go on the right hand side of an assignment expression). As such, it is only possible to bind a temporary to a const reference type. This is a somewhat arbitrary and, often, frustrating rule. The original idea was that there would be no good reason to modify a temporary; however, it turns out that there are plenty of good reasons for doing so and this arbitrary restriction was just a nuisance that served no good cause.

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